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      KTP - Potassium Titanyl Phosphate

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      KTP - Potassium Titanyl Phosphate
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      • KTP - Potassium Titanyl Phosphate

      • KTP is the most commonly used material for SHG of Nd-doped lasers, and also for SFG to generate blue&red light. In addition to these functions, it is also applied to OPO, E-O devices and waveguides.
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      Introduction

      Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (KTiOPO4 or KTP) is widely used in both commercial and military lasers including laboratory and medical system, range-finders, LiDAR, optical communication and industrial systems.

        

      CASTECH's KTP is featured by

      •   Large nonlinear optical coefficient
      •   Wide angular bandwidth and small walk-off angle
      •   Broad temperature and spectral bandwidth
      •   High electro-optic coefficient and low dielectric constant
      •   Large figure of merit
      •   Nonhydroscopic, chemically and mechanically stable

        

      CASTECH offers

      •   Strict quality control
      •   Large crystal size up to 20 × 20 × 40 mm3 and maximum length of 60 mm
      •   Quick delivery (15 working days for polished only, 20 working days for coated)
      •   Unbeatable price and quantity discount
      •   Technical support
      •   AR-coating, mounting and re-working service

        

      Basic Properties

      Table 1. Chemical and Structural Properties

      Crystal Structure Orthorhombic, Space group Pna21, Point group mm2
      Lattice Parameter a = 6.404 Å, b = 10.616 Å, c = 12.814 Å, Z = 8
      Melting Point About 1172 ℃
      Mohs Hardness 5
      Density 3.01 g/cm3
      Thermal Conductivity 13 W/m/K
      Thermal Expansion Coefficients αx = 11 × 10-6 /℃, α= 9 × 10-6 /℃, αz = 0.6 × 10-6 /℃

       

      Table 2. Optical and Nonlinear Optical Properties

      Transparency Range 350-4500 nm
      SHG Phase Matchable Range 497-1800 nm  (Type Ⅱ)
      Therm-optic Coefficient ( λ in μm) dnx/dT = 1.1×10-5 /℃
      dny/dT = 1.3×10-5 /℃
      dnz/dT = 1.6×10-5 /℃
      Absorption Coefficients < 0.1% /cm at 1064 nm, < 1% /cm at 532 nm
      For Type Ⅱ SHG of a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm Temperature Acceptance 24 ℃·cm
      Spectral Acceptance 0.56 nm·cm
      Angular Acceptance 14.2 mrad·cm (Φ);55.3mrad·cm (θ)
      Walk-off Angle 0.55 °
      NLO Coefficients deff (Ⅱ) ≈ (d24 - d15) sin2Φ sin2θ - (d15 sin2Φ + d24 cos2Φ) sinθ
      Non-vanished NLO Susceptibilities

      d31 = 6.5 pm/V              d24 = 7.6 pm/V 

      d32 = 5 pm/V                 d15 = 6.1 pm/V 

      d33 = 13.7 pm/V

      Sellmeier Equations (λ in μm) nx2 = 3.0065 + 0.03901 / (λ2 - 0.04251) - 0.01327 λ2
      ny2 = 3.0333 + 0.04154 / (λ2 - 0.04547) - 0.01408 λ2
      nz= 3.3134 + 0.05694 / (λ2 - 0.05658) - 0.01682 λ2

      Electro-optic Coefficients:

      r13

      r23

      r33

      r51

      r42

      Low frequency (pm/V)     High frequency (pm/V)

       9.5                                    8.8

       15.7                                  13.8

        36.3                                  35.0

       7.3                                    6.9

        9.3                                    8.8

      Dielectric Constant ?eff = 13

       

       

      Applications for SHG and SFG of Nd: Lasers

      KTP is the most commonly used material for frequency doubling of Nd:YAG and other Nd-doped lasers, particularly when the power density is at a low or medium level. Up to now, Nd:lasers that use KTP for intra-cavity and extra-cavity frequency doubling have become a preferred pumping sources for visible dye lasers and tunable Ti:sapphire lasers as well as their amplifiers. They are also used as green sources for many research and industry applications.

      Close to 80% conversion efficiency and 700 mJ green laser were obtained with a 900 mJ injection-seeded Q-switch Nd:YAG lasers by using extra-cavity KTP.

      8 W green laser was generated from a 15 W LD pumped Nd:YVO4 with intra-cavity KTP.

      KTP is also being used for intracavity mixing of 0.81 µm diode and 1.064 µm Nd:YAG laser to generate blue light and intracavity SHG of Nd:YAG or Nd:YAP lasers at 1.3 µm to produce red light.

       

      Fig. 1 Type Ⅱ KTP SHG in XY Plane

       

      Fig.2 Type Ⅱ SHG in XZ Plane

        

      Applications for OPG, OPA and OPO

      As an efficient OPO crystal pumped by a Nd:laser and its second harmonics, KTP plays an important role for parametric sources for tunable outputs from visible (600 nm) to mid-IR (4500 nm), as shown in Fig. 3 and Fig .4.

      Generally, KTP's OPOs provide stable and continuous pulse outputs (signal and idler) in fs, with 108 Hz repetition rate and a miniwatt average power level. A KTP's OPO that are pumped by a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser has generated as high as above 66% efficiency for degenerately converting to 2120 nm.

       

      Fig.3 OPO pumped at 532 in X-Z plane

       

      Fig.4 OPO pumped at 532 in X-Y plane

       

      The novel developed application is the non-critical phase matched (NCPM) KTP's OPO/OPA. As shown in Fig.5, for pumping wavelength range from 0.7 µm to 1 µm, the output can cover from 1.04 µm to 1.45 µm (signal) and from 2.15 µm to 3.2 µm (idler). More than 45% conversion efficiency was obtained with narrow output bandwidth and good beam quality.

       

      Fig.5 Type Ⅱ NCPM OPO

        

      Applications for E-O Devices

      In addition to unique features, KTP also has promising E-O and dielectric properties that are comparable to LiNbO3. These excellent properties make KTP extremely useful to various E-O devices. Table 1 is a comparison of KTP with other E-O modulator materials commonly used:

       

      Table 3. Electro-Optic Modulator Materials

      Materials ε N Phase Amplitude

      R

      (pm/V)

      K

      (10-6/)

      N7r2/ε 

      (pm/V)2

      r

      (pm/V)

      K

      (10-6/)

      n7r2/ε 

      (pm/V)2

      KTP 15.42 1.8 35 31 6130 27 11.7 3650
      LiNbO3 27.9 2.2 8.8 82 7410 20.1 42 3500
      KD*P 48 1.47 24 9 178 24 8 178
      LiIO3 5.9 1.74 6.4 24 335 1.2 15 124

       

       

      From Table 1, clearly, KTP is expected to replace LiNbO3 crystal in the considerable volume application of E-O modulators, when other merits of KTP are combined into account, such as high damage threshold, wide optical bandwidth (?15 GHZ), thermal and mechanical stability, and low loss, etc.

       

      Applications for Optical Waveguides

      Based on the ion-exchange process on KTP substrate, low loss optical waveguides developed for KTP have created novel applications in integrated optics. Table 2 gives a comparison of KTP with other optical waveguide materials. Recently, a type Ⅱ SHG conversion efficiency of 20% /W/cm2 was achieved by the balanced phase matching, in which the phase mismatch from one section was balanced against a phase mismatch in the opposite sign from the second. Furthermore, segmented KTP waveguide have been applied to the type Ⅰ quasi-phase-matchable SHG of a tunable Ti:Sapphire laser in the range of 760-960 mm, and directly doubled diode lasers for the 400-430 nm outputs.

       

      Table 4. Electro-Optic Waveguide Materials

      Materials r (pm/V) n εeff (ε11ε33)1/2 n3r/εeff (pm/V)
      KTP 35 1.86 13 17.3
      LiNbO3 29 2.2 37 8.3
      KNbO3 25 2.17 30 9.2
      BNN 56 2.22 86 7.1
      BN 56-1340 2.22 119-3400 5.1-0.14
      GaAs 1.2 3.6 14 4
      BaTiO3 28 2.36 373 1

       

       

      KTP's Parameters

       

      Table 5. Specifications

      Dimension Tolerance (W ± 0.1 mm) × (H ± 0.1 mm) × (L + 0.5/-0.1 mm)   (L2.5 mm)(W ± 0.1 mm) × (H ± 0.1 mm) × (L + 0.1/-0.1 mm)   (L2.5 mm)
      Clear Aperture  Central 90% of the diameter
      Internal Quality No visible scattering paths or centers when inspected by a 50 mW green laser
      Surface Quality (Scratch/Dig) 10/5 to MIL-PRF-13830B
      Flatness ≦ λ/8 @633 nm
      Transmitted Wavefront Distortion ≦ λ/8 @633 nm
      Parallelism 20 arc sec
      Perpendicularity ≦ 15 arc min
      Angle Tolerance ≦ 0.25 °
      Chamfer ≦ 0.2 mm × 45 °
      Chip ≦ 0.1 mm
      Damage Threshold

      1 GW/cm2 @1064 nm, 10 ns, 10 Hz (AR-coated)

      0.3 GW/cm2 @532 nm, 10 ns, 10 Hz (AR-coated)

      Quality Warranty Period One year under proper use.

       

       

      AR-coatings

      CASTECH provides the following AR-coatings:

      •   Dual Band AR-coating (DBAR) of KTP for SHG of 1064 nm; low reflectance (R<0.2% @1064 nm and R<0.5% @532 nm)
      •   High reflectivity coating: HR 1064 nm & HT 532 nm, R?99.8% @1064nm, T?90% @532 nm
      •   Broad Band AR-coating (BBAR) of KTP for OPO applications
      •   High damage threshold (?300 MW/cm2 at both wavelengths)
      •   Long durability
      •   Other coatings are available upon request
      • NLO Crystals_Potassium Titanyl Phosphate(KTiOPO4 , KTP).pdf

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